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2012年复旦大学翻译硕士考研复试真题

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2012年复旦大学翻译硕士考研复试真题

THE AUTHORITY OF SCIENCE VS. THE AUTHORITY OF THE CHURCH

A History of Western Philosophy by Bertrand Russell

(注:考题未给作者和出处)

(The period of history which is commonly called 'modern' has a mental outlook which differs from that of the medi period in many ways. Of these, two are the most important:

the diminishing authority of the Church and the increasing authority of science...)

The authority of science, which is recognized by most philosophers of the modern epoch, is a very different thing from the authority of the Church, since it is intellectual, not governmental. No penalties fall upon those who reject it; no prudential arguments influence those who accept it. It prevails solely by its intrinsic appeal to reason. It is, moreover, a piecemeal and partial authority; it does not, like the body of Catholic dogma, lay down a complete system, covering human morality, human hopes, and the past and future history of the universe. It pronounces only on whatever, at the time, appears to have been scientifically ascertained, which is a small island in an ocean of nescience. There is yet another difference from ecclesiastical authority, which declares its pronouncements to be absolutely certain and eternally unalterable: the pronouncements of science are made tentatively, on a basis of probability, and are regarded as liable to modification.

This produces a temper of mind very different from that of the media dogmatist.

(只翻第二段)

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